Summary 👇

Lesson 11: The Computer as the Teacher’s Tool Summary
Constructivism was introduced by Piaget (1981) and Bruner (1991). They gave stress to knowledge discovery of new meaning/ concepts/ principles in the learning process. Various strategies have been suggested to foster knowledge discovery, among these, is making students engaged in gathering unorganized information from which they can induce ideas and principles.

While knowledge is constructed by the individual learner in constructivism, knowledge can also be socially constructed. Social constructivism is an effort to show that the construction of knowledge is governed by social, historical and cultural contexts.

The psychologists Vygotsky stressed that the learning is affected by social influences. He therefore, suggested the interactive process in learning. The more capable adults (teacher or parent) or classmate can aid or complement what the learner sees in a given class project. In addition, Dewey sees language as a medium for social coordination and adaptation. For Dewey human learning is really human languaging that occurs when students socially share, build and agree upon meanings and knowledge.

The Computer’s Capabilities

                Given its present-day speed, flexibility and sophistication, the computer can provide access to information, foster creative social knowledge-building, and enhance the communication of the achieved project package.

                Based on the two learning theories, the teacher can employ the computer as a/an:

•         An information tool

•         A communication tool

•         A constructive tool

•         As co-constructive tool

•         A situating tool
Informative tool. The computer can provide vast amounts of information in various forms, such as text, graphics, sound, and video. Even multimedia encyclopedias are today available on the Internet.

Constructive tool. The computer itself can be used for manipulating information, visualizing ones understanding, building new knowledge. The Microsoft Word computer program itself is desktop publishing software that allows users to organize and present their ideas in attractive formats.

Co-constructive tool. Students can use co-constructive tools to work cooperatively and construct a shared understanding of new knowledge.

Situating tool. By means of virtual reality (RS) extension systems, the computer can create 3-D images on display to give the user the feeling that are situated in a virtual environment.

Lesson 12: Information Technology in Support of Students-Centered Learning Summary
The traditional classroom

It may be observed that classrooms are usually arranged with neat columns and rows of student chairs, while the teacher stands in front of the classroom or sits behind his/her deck. This situation is necessitated by the need to maintain classroom activities through lecture presentation and teacher-led discussions.

 The SCL classroom

                Desiring to gain effectiveness, efficiency and economy in administration and instruction, schools in these developed economies have also adopted the support of ICTs. Their students have now become active not passive learners, who can interact with other learners, demonstrating independence and self-awareness in the learning process.

                Generally, the new school classroom environment is characterized by student individually or in group:

•         Performing computer word processing for text or graph presentations.

•         Preparing power-point presentation

•         Searching for information on the internet

•         Brainstorming on ideas, problems and project plan as needed, the teacher facilitating instruction, also gives individualized instruction. 

Lesson 13: Cooperative Learning with the Computer Summary
Cooperative Learning or Collaborative Learning is learning by small groups of student who work together in a common learning task. It is often also called group learning but to be truly cooperative learning five (5) elements are needed:

1.       A common goal

2.       Interdependence

3.       Interaction

4.       Individual accountability

5.       Social skills
From several studies made on cooperative learning it is manifested that cooperative learning in its true sense is advantageous since it;

(a)    Encourages active learning while motivating students;

(b)   Increases academic performance

(c)    Promotes literacy and language skill; and

(d)   Improves teacher effectiveness
Cooperative learning and the Computer

                Researchers have made studies on the learning interaction between the student and the computer. The studies have great value since it has been a long standing fear that the computer may foster student learning in isolation that hinders the development of the students social skills. Researchers agree that the computer is a fairly natural learning vehicle for cooperative (at times called promotive) learning.

                Components of cooperative learning

Educators are still vary about the computer’s role in cooperative learning. Thus they pose the position that the use of computers do not automatically result in cooperative learning. In that case, therefore assign the teacher several tasks in order to ensure collaborative learning. These are:

•         Assigning students to mixed-ability teams;

•         Establishing positive interdependence;

•         Teaching cooperative social skills;

•         Insuring individual accountability; and

•         Helping groups process information.
Lesson 14: The Software as an Educational Resource Summary
It’s more difficult to realize, however, that the computer hardware can hardly be useful without the program or system that tells what the computer machine should do. This is also called the software.

These are two kinds of software:

1.       The systems software. This is the operating system that is found or bundled inside all computer machines.

2.       The applications software. This contains the system that commands the particular task or solves a particular problem.
In turn the applications software may be :

(a)    a custom software that is made for specific tasks often by large corporations, or

(b)   a commercial software packaged for personal computers that helps with a variety of tasks such as writing papers, calculating numbers, drawing graphs, playing games, and so much more .
Microsoft Windows

            Also referred to as a program, Microsoft Windows or Windows for short is an operating environment between the user and the computer operating system . Also called shell, it is a layer that creates the way the computer should work .

                Windows as (now improved with Windows 2003, 2007 ) is a software designed for Microsoft Windows. Actually Windows is in itself a self-contained operating system which provides:

•         User convenience –just click a file name to retrieve data or click from program to program as easy as changing channels in your TV screen

•         A new look-fancy borders, smooth and streamlined text fonts

•         Information center-Windows puts all communications activities (e-mail, downloads etc. in a single  screen icon ); adapts/configures the computer for the Internet.

•         Plug and play-configures the computer with added components , such as for sound and video .
Instructional software

     Instructional software can be visited on the Internet or can be bought from software shops or dealers . The teacher through his school should decide on the best computer-based instructional  (CBI ) materials for the school resource collection . But beware since CBIs need much improvement, while web-based educational resources are either extremely good or what is complete garbage . In evaluating computer-based educational materials, the following can serve as guidelines:

•         Be extremely cautious in using CBIs and ‘ free ‘ Internet materials .

•         Don’t be caught up by attractive graphics , sound , animation, pictures, video clips and music forgetting their instructional worth .

•         Teachers must evaluate these resources using sound pedagogical principles.

•         Among design and content elements to evaluate are the text legibility, effective use of color schemes, attractive layout and design, and easy navigation from section- to- section.

•         Observe clarity in the explanations and illustrations of concepts and principles

•         Maintain accuracy, coherence, logic of information

•         Are they being current since data/statistics continually change

•         Are they relevant and effective in attaining learning objectives

•         Observe absence of biased materials (e.g. gender bias or racial bias)
Lesson 15: Understanding Hypermedia Summary

Hypermedia is nothing but multimedia, but this time packaged as an educational computer software where information is presented and student activities are integrated in a virtual learning environment. Most educational IT applications are hypermedia and these include:

•         Tutorial software;

•         Knowledge webpages;

•         Simulation instructional games; and

•         Learning project management, and others.
Characteristics of hypermedia applications

                There are two important features that are outstanding-among other features-that characterize the hypermedia software:

1.       Learner control. This means the learner makes his own decisions on the path, flow or events of instruction.

2.       Learner wide range of navigation routes. For the most part, the learner controls the sequence and pace of his path depending on his/her ability and motivation.

3.       Variety of media. Hypermedia includes more than one media (text, graphics, audio, animation and video clip) but does not necessarily use all types of media in one presentation.

In the use of hypermedia the following instructional events will prove useful to the teacher:

•         Get the learners’ attention.

•         Recall prior learning.

•         Inform learners of lesson objectives.

•         Introduce the software and its distinctive features

•         Guide learning, eliciting performance.

•          Provide learning feedback.

•         Assess performance.

•          Enhance retention and learning transfer.

The Internet and Education

                The Internet, also simply called the Net is the largest and far-flung network system of all systems. The Internet is not really a network but a loosely organized collection of about 25,000 networks accessed by computers on the planet.

Everything is coordinated in the internet through a standardized protocol called transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). To gain access to the Internet, The computer must be equipped with what is called a Server which has a special software program that uses the Internet protocol.

The great attraction of the Internet is that once the sign-up fees are paid, there are no extra charges. E-mail for example is free regardless of amount use. The vast sea o information now in the Internet is an overwhelming challenge to those who wish to navigate it. The most attractive way to move around the Internet is called browsing. Using a program called the browser, the user can use a mouse to point and click on screen icons to surf the Internet, particularly the World Wide Web, an Internet’s subset of text, images and sounds are linked together to allow users to access data or information needed.
Educational software materials have also developed both in sophistication and appeal. But the real possibility today is connecting with the world outside homes, classrooms and the Internet cafes. Today schools are gearing up to take advantage of internet access. 

      And today schools are gearing up to take advantage of internet access, where they can plug into the Library of Congress, make virtual visits to famous museums in the world, write to celebrities, and even send questions to heads of states.

Internet is electronic communications network that connects computer facilities around the world. Also internet gives an easy way to enhance the education because it makes the information accessible for learner to be used in their learning.
Lesson 17: Educational Technology 2 Practicum Summary
                Much like field studies in teacher education, Educational Technology 2 offers students the experiential process of adapting to technology integration within a student-centered paradigm. This is the practicum phase of the course which can be done, as seen fit by the teacher, either at the end of the more theoretical lessons or inserted between lessons.

              The practicum phase consists of hands-on computer tutorials which the student teacher or professional teacher-trainee will need to make him / her capable.

              The essential requirements for the ET 2 practicum phase will be:

•         a computer laboratory / special computer classroom with adequate sets of computers for hands-on tutorial learning

•         Participation of computer lab tutor/assistant-as the teacher’s technical assistant-to assist the learner in the use of computer and its various programs

•         Assigned number of hours in conformity with the course requirement. Tutorials are preferably done during weekends in order to provide continuous hours of computer hands-on training.
The practicum phase consists in:

1.       Basic Microsoft Word (6 hrs.)

The tutorial familiarizes each individual learner to the basics of Microsoft Word. They will learn to use menus and toolbars of the software. They will be taught to type, edit and format text, sentences and paragraphs.
Tutorial coverage:

•         Microsoft word menus and toolbars

•         Creating, formatting, editing and saving documents

•         Assigning page layouts

•         Inserting tabs and tables

•         Templates and Wizard

•         Printing

Upon successful completion, the learner shall be able to:

•         Create, open and save word documents and files

•         Insert graphics, tables and charts in documents

•         Manage files and folder

•         Apply format on the text, sentences and paragraphs

•         Interlink documents

•         Create standard documents using template
2.       Microsoft PowerPoint (6 hrs. )

         The tutorial is a familiarization on the basics of Microsoft PowerPoint. It will train the learner to prepare PowerPoint presentations to enhance the teaching of subjects.

•         PowerPoint fundamentals

•         Enhancement of PowerPoint presentation with the use of graphics, charts, audio and video

•         Using templates and masters (slide, handout and notes )

•         Presenting and printing a slide shows
At the end of the tutorial, the learner will be able to:

•         Create and open PowerPoint presentations

•         Insert objects  (cliparts), pictures, graphics, charts, audio and video to create effective presentations

•         Use the templates to enhance presentations

3.       Internet as tool of inquiry (4 hrs.)

         The tutorial will facilitate the finding of sources of information appropriate to a learning task.
Course coverage;
•         Accessing the Internet

•         Use of Internet tools

•         Search techniques
       At the end of the tutorial, the learner will be able to:

•         search and retrieve information from the Web

•         acquire skills in locating appropriate information on the Internet

•         acquire ability to use Internet tools such as search engines

•         gain knowledge of search techniques such as browsing through an information tree